һ λ ˹ ̹ ҵ
(2003 10 ) Ϣ ˹ ̹ ѧ ѷ л Ժ չ ҵ С " ̬ ȷ "

С л ڣ ֪ һ ֱ ҵ ʵ ʩ չ ս ս ʱ Ҫ ͨ Ӧ Ӱ ҵ ҵ ̬ չ Ҫ ҵ һ ʲ ô ҵ ̬ У Ȼ Ӧ ҵ ̬ ȡ ơ Ϊ ǰ ȣ Ŀ ǰ ҵ ̬ Ҫ ͬ ֮

ѷ л ԭ ҵ ̬ ȣ Ŀ ǰ ҵ ̬ ȷ һ ̬ ģ ȷ ǿ һ ͬ ҵ ˥ һ ѭ һ ҵ ˳ ȥ һ û ʲ ô ̬ չ ȴ ͻ Ȼ ˥ ˡ һ ˵ ҵ һ ״ ̬ һ · չ 룬 ԭ ֣ ״ ̬ ȥ һ Σ ʼ һ ѭ ѭ ǰ Щ Լ 15 һ Σ Ҳ ˵ һ ˾ 15 һ ѭ һ ϵ ͳ  ȥ Ρ Ϣ Ѹ ݣ 5 7 һ ѭ

磬 IBM 1984 ʱ ʵ ǿ ʲ ô ˵ IBM ʲ ô ʲ ô 1990 ȥ IBM CEO1998 ת ͣ ǰ ȥ ˡ 磬 MCI ͨ Ϊ һ ҵ ˾ 5 ˤ ˣ ʷ ֤ ˾ ǰ һ ͣ Ӧ ̬ ȷ ϵ ͳ ⡣

С ҵ ң Ϊ Ҳ ̬ ȷ

ѷ л ġ ȣ ȷ ࡣ Ϊ DZ ࣬ ҵ ҵ ҵ ѣ ˵ ⣬ ҵ Ӱ ƫ ҵ ҵ ̬ ȷ ͻ ա Щ ȷ ⣬ ҵ ҵ Ҫ ע ˼ ⣬ һ ʲ ô ʹ ϵ ͳ Ӧ ϵ ͳ

С ̬ ȷ ⣬ ˹ ̹ ѧ ר ֣ Ҫ ӳ

ѷ л ˹ ̹ ѧ ר " ̬ ȷ " Ҳ У ̡ ѧ Ա ӳ " ̬ ȷ " Ҫ Ҳ Ҫ ѧ Ա ӳ ս ͣ ̬ ȣ ̬ ѧ Ա Ϊ ̬ ̬ á ̬ Ҫ ij һ ֹ ״ ̬ չ ̬ Ҫ չ С ϵ ͳ һ ϵ ͳ ͬ ת һ ҵ ϵ ͳ ת Ԥ δ Ӧ ̬

ᣬ Ʒ ϵ ͳ ˵ ʲ ô Ҳ ģ ϵ ͳ ͬ ʹ չ һ ͬ Ʒ ͨ ϵ ͳ ȥ ά չ ͨ ϵ ͳ Ч ϵ ͳ ̬ ȷ ԡ ϵ ͳ ԭ ϵ ͳ ˡ Ϊ ҵ ϵ ͳ в ϵ ͳ Щ ҵ ѧ ע 㣬 " ̬ ȷ " 㡣

С " ̬ ȷ " ۣ ̬ ȷ £ ҵ Ӧ ǿ

ѷ л ȷ ̬ ע ҵ ϵ ͳ ϵ ͳ ġ ȥ ã ζ ת Ȼ á ԭ ô ȷ ̬ Ȼ ã

̬ ȷ Ʒ ת ⡢ Ӧ 磬 SONY һ ¼ Ӱ ԭ ̨ ҵ ; ¼ ʱ Ϊ 1 С ʱ Sony һ " ʱ " (time shift) ¼ ƣ ʱ  Ʒ ռ ʱ 80 Ӱ ¼ Ӱ ҵ ת Ϊ ͥ ¼ Ӱ Ƭ á ͥ ͨ ѡ ʱ ϲ Ӱ Ƭ Ϊ  ˡ Ӱ Ƭ Ϊ 2 С ʱ SONY ֻ 1 С ʱ ¼ ʱ 䣬 ֧  ʱ JVC ¼ Ӱ ¼ Ϊ 2 С ʱ ң ֱ ˳ Ӧ ֧  ʱ 䣬 JVC ռ 80 JVC Sony û ϵ ͳ ˡ

С У 90 ҵ С ҵ С ҵ С ߣ л Ϊ Ӧ

ѷ л ͳ (first mover advantage) һ ˣ ң Ϊ ռ ׬ Ǯ λ á Ϊ ơ

֮ ǰ Ҫ ġ Ϊ ҵ ̬ ˵ һ " " " " (Grabber) һ " " " " (Holder)

" " Ȥ һ ֵ Զ հ һ ΰ Ʒ һ ʱ һ 棬 ԡ " " ԡ " " ָ Щ ʹ ֵ ˵ ֵ ʩ ʩ ʩ

У " " ̡ Ӧ ֯ ʩ ʶ Ҫ 磻 " " ˾ ʩ ȡ " " ͨ ֻ ʱ Ҫ Ч " " ʱ á " " һ ͨ Ҳ

֮ ͳ ͨ һ ʱ һ ߣ ͨ ϵ ͳ ֧ ʹ ֵ У Ŀ ˾ ֵ Ʒ ֪ ȡ Ʒ ֪ ʩ ƣ ʶ ȴ ȥ

죬 ᡣ Խ ǿ Ҳ Խ ʱ Ч Ӧ ơ û ƣ ʹ Ҳ ֪ ơ ʶ ʵ ʩ ս Դ ˾ λ

֮ Դ ǿ ʩ Ʒ ֪ ȣ ֧ ҵ ģ ʽ һ ʩ Ʒ ֪ λ 䡣 һ ̬ Ŀ ꡣ Ҳ ˣ 档

С ѡ

ѷ л Ȼ ѡ Ҫ ϸ ʵ ʩ ս ֤ ͬ Ҫ Ҫ " " ͨ һ ½ 㣻 ֧ ֵ

½ ѡ λ ء ͨ DZ Ⱥ ѡ ʵ ȡ ʱ ߣ ֧ ϵ

ȷ ֮ ǰ Ҫ ԡ Ϊ գ Ӧ һ С ԡ ʵ ֮ ǰ Ҫ Ͷ ʡ ˵ " " ߣ ɫ Լ 5000 С ½ 㣻 " " DZ ԣ С ½ 㣻 ˾ ץ ס "ʵ " DZ ԣ ˹ ½ 㡣
ءš